Later than most children at learning to speak .
Difficulty to express themselves clearly.
Trouble with pronouncing some words , especially long words.
Using spoonerisms eg par cark instead of car park . Noseman
instead of snowman.(Spoonerisms are words or phrases in which letters or syllables get swapped )
Please note :If children show problems with speech production they should be seen by a speech therapist for assessment .
Word Retrieval and Vocabulary problems
Slow to learn new vocabulary.
May have difficulty in recalling the right word when they need to use it. They may tend to use a word with a similar meaning.
Memory problems :
Difficulty in remembering information or instructions (especially multi-step instructions).
Difficulty in remembering things in a sequential order eg the alphabet, re-telling a story in the correct order.
Often have trouble learning numbers , days of the week , colours and shapes.
Phonological and phonemic awareness problems
Phonological awareness is a broad term referring to an understanding that oral language can be divided into smaller components such as words, syllables and phonemes which can be manipulated.
Phonemic awareness is the ability to identify the individual sounds in spoken words.
Difficulty in rhyming. ( what rhymes with cat ? hat , mat .. )
Difficulty in counting syllables in words
Difficulty with identifying the beginning and ending sound of a word.
Problems separating speech sounds in words.
Problems blending speech sounds in words
Difficulty with learning letters and their sounds ( phonics)
Other problems :
Difficulty with colouring and copying.
May experience difficulty getting dressed – what goes on first , trouble with buttons and laces.
May appear clumsy and have poor co-ordination.
Lack of concentration.
If your child has a number of these problems then it is important to seek professional help from a psychologist to assess your child properly . Especially, if dyslexia runs in your family.
In addition parents should immediately start to carry out educational activities to help their child to improve their performance in the areas they find difficulties with. Particular emphasis should be put on improving phonological and phonemic awareness.